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Bitcoin mining.

Started by Bitcoin, Feb 14, 2021, 08:32 am

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Bitcoin

Energy efficiency for mining operations.
Energy use is a primary concern for mining operations. If operating costs are higher than what is needed for a favorable financial return on the mining operation, the business model will be a non-starter. To illustrate this point, in 2009 when bitcoin launched, each block created was worth 50 bitcoins. By design, this figure is scheduled to fall by half every 4 years: 25 bitcoins in 2012, 12.5 bitcoins in 2016, and 6.25 bitcoins in 2020. When the mining industry's revenue falls by half, its energy consumption must fall proportionately. If it doesn't fall, mining would become an unprofitable activity. It is necessary to control energy consumption and cost by upfront analysis on location, system type, server performance, etc.
To understand how different components impact the total cost of ownership (simple payback in this example), Figure 3 illustrates the sensitivity of simple payback to different variables.
The mining server has an electrical demand of 1,620 W. The server has a hash rate of 18 T-H/s. The server's first cost is $4,800. The electricity rate is $0.10/kWh. The server will mine the equivalent of $3,200/year in bitcoins. The data center's cooling system power (watts per watt of server power) is 0.392. Data center construction costs (dollars per watt of server power) equal $3 per watt.
Discussion on Results.
When performing this type of analysis, one of the assumptions is that when a single variable is altered, the other variables remain static. This is generally true for this analysis, except for Case 3 where the cooling energy was reduced commensurate with the reduction in server power. As in all data center projects, reducing the electrical load for the IT equipment will have the greatest impact on reducing overall energy use. In any analysis of data center energy consumption, studying the IT load is the starting point as all energy use cascades down to the other systems. Increasing the server operating temperature will reduce the payback by 5%. The risk of an increased server failure rate must be taken into consideration, including annual replacement costs. Case 4 assumed the ability to obtain the base case servers, but for 20% less. The power and hash rates are the same. The electrical utility rate is a fixed-rate structure: Time-of-day rates or demand charges are not included. Depending on the area of the United States, these can have a significant impact on total cost of ownership. The type of building assumed in this analysis is a Tier 1 facility of simple construction. Building a more robust building, like a Tier 2 or Tier 3, will add a significant amount of costs.
This analysis is meant to provide a high-level snapshot of how a simple payback is impacted by manipulating different variables. It is not exhaustive and can't account for different situations and parameters that could further influence the total cost of ownership. As an example, installations that are highly electrically dense will likely need supplemental cooling to avoid areas of extreme heat buildup, even if outdoor air is being used to cool the data center. A nuance like this is not covered in this type of analysis.
Unlike enterprise servers where it is difficult (if not impossible) to draw a one-to-one correlation between server energy use and financial return, this correlation is readily obtainable from mining operations. This is possible, in part, because while enterprise servers will handle a multitude of different applications, the mining servers are designed to do only one thing--mining. Understanding the influencing parameters when planning a new mining data center will provide valuable data and analysis techniques to maximize the owner's ROI.
Bill Kosik is a data center energy efficiency strategist. In the mission critical industry, he is a subject matter expert in research, analysis, strategy, and planning in the reduction of data center energy consumption, water use, and indirect greenhouse gas emissions. Kosik is a member of the Consulting-Specifying Engineer editorial advisory board.
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The Impact of Bitcoin mining on Data Centers.
Bitcoin is the newbuzz word in computing these days. It holds the promise of making fast money and is a lucrative temptation for those who like to play big. Bitcoin is a transaction protocol for digital currency transactions and is the name of the crypto currency. Though not all governments have legalized the use of bitcoins, the United States appears to be one of the more bitcoin friendly governments. Many online retailers across industries such as jewelry, fashion, home decor, electronics, consumables and even books accept bitcoins.
How does this current craze around bitcoins affect the data center industry? Bitcoin mining requires specialized high performance hardware that can solve the computational algorithms at a high-speed, with accuracy and efficiency. The demand for this kind of hardware is going up exponentially each day. Along with the demand for this kind of specialized hardware, the growing demand for data centers to equip and to handle cooling of this kind of heat generating hardware is increasing. Specialized data centers use immersion cooling, which is a liquid cooling technique for high density hardware.
An example of a data center implementing these techniques is the unique one created by innovative company ASICMiner. This company uses Novec, which is a new liquid that is used for data center cooling, created by 3M. The hardware racks are mounted in huge tanks containing this liquid. As the hardware heats up, the liquid provides the surrounding cooling as it converts from liquid to gas.
Bitcoin mining is an extremely computing intensive activity and the need for both electric and computing power increases over time. Data centers that support Bitcoin mining are usually in the range of 1 megawatt to 5 megawatt facilities. The kind of cooling needed is similar to the requirements of super computers, and Green Revolution Cooling (GRC) is another leading provider of immersion based cooling systems.

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Liquid cooling is the de-facto way to go forward for Bitcoin mining hardware. For example, data centers that use liquid cooling claim to be able to accommodate up to 92 blades in a single tank. The popularity of bitcoin will see a growing need for high-tech data centers with state of the art hardware and cooling mechanisms higher in the coming year.
Bitcoin mining is moving rapidly to a Bitcoin hosting data center or Bitcoin colocation hosting faciiities. Locating the best Bitcoin, ASIC, block chain and Ethereum data center to host your operation can be challenging. In the past, all you needed to mine Bitcoin digital currency was a rack, power and cooling. As equipment changed and the quality of crypto-currency mining ASIC processors and systems increased so did the challenges for the Bitcoin crypto-currency operator. Migrating to a facility with high density power and large amounts of cooling is now a necessity not just an option. Finding a cost effective data center to house your Bitcoin operation is our specialty. DataCenterAndColocation.com consulting is a free service to Bitcoin operators looking for cage space, a private Bitcoin colocation suite or a Bitcoin wholesale data center space. Crypto-currency enthusiasts are scrambling to find the right location to house their equipment.
Here is a partial list of the cryptocurrency companies looking for data center space:
Bitcoin Ethereum Ripple Namecoin Bitcoin gold Litecoin Dogecoin Swiftcoin Peercoin Mastercoin.
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Any number of miners up to 500 kWs Space available with 1.6 mWs Bitcoin space available up 2.5 mWs Large miner hosting space for 6 mWs of power Large deployments for block chain clients, we have space available up to 35 mWs Construction site that has 125 mWs of power with the transformer on site. US and Canadian bitcoin hosting sites We provide support to our clients throughout the term of their contract and any renewals.
Some of the Bitcoin hosting data center features to consider are the following:
A secure hosting location to house expensive Bitcoin ASIC miner equipment. Low cost of power and space Sufficient cooling Remote hand assistance as required A reliable Internet connection A data center that understands the requirements of Bitcoin hosting operators Payment for services with Bitcoins as an option Expansion space Flexible term contracts.
Our company negotiates directly on a wholesale basis with data center management and quoted by management at lower costs and on a volume basis which results in lower costs. Most spaces have racks and cooling in place and ready for installation.
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How to make money using a Bitcoin mining script?
In general, to people can mine bitcoins in three ways,
Type 1: people will install software in CPU, and the software will be run whenever the systems switch on. Notably, this kind of software will not get you satisfactory results and will result in mining a small number of bitcoins.
Type 2: Mining bitcoins by setting up dedicated mining rigs & by specialized mining hardware's. But this will cost too high and require a continuous electricity supply.
Type 3: Cloud mining.
In this way, people can mine bitcoins by getting connected with cloud mining companies. There will be an option to choose the budget. Based on the cryptocurrency and the hash power the budget may vary. When comparing to other two way. Bitcoin cloud mining is found to be the best alternative and result s in high ROI, in the business point of view.
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A Bitcoin mining script can function in two ways.
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Bitcoin is founded on the notion that financial transactions should be both decentralized (i.e. detached from intermediaries such as central banks) and entirely private. However, allowing a centralized entity - in this case, the Blockseer mining pool - to adopt the role of transaction arbiter acts to water down these core tenets.
Mining Rig, Room, And Farm Cooling Ideas.
Getting your mining rigs room temperatures under control in the summer can be a frustrating task for sure. However, with these cooling ideas in which I'm about to share with you, I was able to achieve the impossible by keeping 26 eth mining rigs running stable all summer long in a metal building without AC.
What's the best way to keep a mining rig cool? Inline fans and flexible ductwork can make a very efficient cooling solution for most mining rigs as AC units should be considered costly in most cases. In addition to ventilation, further miner configuration settings such as voltage and fan speeds can be used to reduce mining room temperatures even further.
The importance of finding a cool, dry location to run your mining rigs is imperative to your crypto money-making success and so I wanted to go more in-depth about what I'm personally doing at both my farms that's worked wonders in controlling my heat issues without the need of an AC unit.
How To Keep A Mining Room C ool.
My first Mining Rig Room I ever built was actually under my house a few years back when S9 Antminer's were crushing the Bitcoin mining scene.
I started by running one in my spare bedroom to see what the madness was all about and soon realized these machines were never designed to run inside living quarters spaces.
With four more S9's from China and enough Rx 580s to build two 6 card eth rigs on the way, I had to come up with a solution and quick.
After brainstorming for a while, the idea of building a separate small room in my crawl space seemed like the perfect solution as it stays cool even in the summer months.
As you can see in the picture, I have the S9 Antminers on the right which pull cold air in from the crawl space through the room and exhaust out the back through all the rigs channel into one duct which exhausts the hot air outside where it can then dissipate.
If you look in this picture, I even went and took the liberty of adding two additional inline fans on the exhaust side of the system to help further aid the S9 Antminers in exhausting hot air. 1×6″ and 1×8″ inline duct fan.
Dual inline fans to boost exhaust. This exhaust out a crawl space vent to the outside. The green hvac filters pull in filtered air from the ASICS.
To attach the ductwork to the S9's, as you see in the picture, you'll need to order 4-inch duct shrouds which fit perfectly on the back of the S9.
Once those were attached, I manage to duct them all into one 8 inch exhaust pipe with a series of different y ducts and couplers which you can purchase at just about any home depot or lowes.
Exhaust Hot Air Door Closes Air Tight.
After two years my machines are still running strong, and I've rarely have had any problems at all in maintaining those rigs as they never really crash unless the power goes out.
My only two improvements I would add at this point would be sound barrier to prevent noise travel into the house and add in a valve which would allow me to point the exhausted hot air under the house in hopes to heat my hardwood floors in the winter.
26 GPU mining Farm Cooling.
This next build I must admit I don't know what I was thinking, but after getting the itch for mining crypto, I decided to go big this time and build an 18'x20′ metal mining shop. Not only did I go big on buying the shop but also spent the next three months buying enough GPU's to build 26 mining rigs.
Once I got the structure set up my buddy, who is an electrician, wired up the inside with a 200 amp main and then it finally time to get to work installing a 1000cfm gable vent fan.
At the time I didn't want to spend the extra money insulating the inside, so I decided to skimp which in hindsight was my biggest mistake. Even though my building gets a decent amount of shade, it still has a few hours in the morning and after 5 pm till 9 pm which I way underestimated.
Turns out once you get past a certain amount of mining rigs in your farm it becomes another mistake to pack them in a grow tent. At the time I thought the tent could cut down on dust, but it had many hot spots with the doors shut, so I peeled the doors back to let the rigs breathe more.
Initially, I started with the gable vent fan, but once the grow tent idea came to play, I decided to tie in 2 more 12-inch fans which exhaust hot air from the top of the tent into a 12-inch duct. From there they tie in together through a 12-inch y duct and then it all final ties into the gable fan and exhausts out the back.
After adding in all those fans, you would think that it would be enough to cool my shop, but my rigs had so many issues the first summer that I knew I had to do something else.
So at the start of the next spring, I came up the idea of adding in an additional 12-inch air vent to intake air. However, instead of placing the vent on the sunny side of the building I installed it on the shaded side of my shop.
My idea was I would take and daisy chain 2 12 inch fans to draw lots of cool fresh air by just using the north side of the shop which has tons of shade.
After that, I ended up doing some more research into UV heat reflecting coatings and was able to find a source made for metal. The only reason I looked into this was due to the enormous heat radiating from the metal siding which was transferring into my rigs.
During the daytime, the heat coming off that roof alone was around 130 degrees Fahrenheit before I applied the UV coating. Product reviews from all the way in Guam reported how well this stuff worked on roofs and the company even swears it keeps metal surfaces at ambient temperature even under extreme conditions of direct sunlight.

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After seeing good results from coating my roof, I now want the whole south side of my miner shops exterior coated to see if I can shave a few more degrees. In addition to that Ill be adding in 1/2 inch insulation sheets to the southside wall to ensure no more outside sources of heat are transferring inside.
Mining Rig Cooling In The S ummer.
Another trick you can do to manage heat is by optimizing your rigs software and hardware settings.
For AMD cards you can lower your card's voltage with tools like wattman which cuts back on the cards energy consumption and lowers temps.
If you're using Nvidia, you have to lower the cards power limit with MSI Afterburner.
Fan settings are another great way to manage rig heat. Using tools like MSI Afterburner allows you to set multiple profiles for winter and summer. Another nice feature about MSI AB is the ability to create individual fan profiles which is great if you have one card that runs warmer.
Depending on the mining software your rigs operate on there are additional settings inside which can control each GPU's temperatures. Miners like Claymore allow you to set temperature ranges for your hardware to operate within.
Example: If I add the commands -tstart 65 -tstop 69 at the end of my Bat file in Claymore then my cards stop mining at 69 degrees and start back up at 65 degrees. Be sure to check out each miner's Read Me documentation as the parameters to adjust card temps vary from miner to miner.
Mining Grow Tents.
All right so as you can see in the picture of my attempt to handle dust with a 10×10 grow tent was a bad idea for my situation.
To be quite honest if it were in a basement or much cooler environment it would work wonders but for 26 Eth rigs in a metal shop in with hot summers, not such a good idea.
Now if I were mining inside a house with 2 or 3 rigs, then I would use a grow tent and place it near a window where I could circulate the air through the tent and out the window.
A couple of tips for this, if you do decide to use a tent, be sure to put the intake duct where the air comes into the tent at the bottom so it can work its way up into the rigs.
Moreover, you want to make sure you have enough cFm on your fan to create a negative draw meaning your tent should suck in when everything is closed up.
SIDENOTE: If your mining inside a home then you may want to look into these quieter fans, but they do cost more for the convenience.
Mining Rig Cooling.
Attaching extra fans to your mining rigs frame is another excellent way to get heat out from between your cards quickly. As I said before the faster you get the heat away from your rigs, the more efficient they become.
Most of the auxiliary fans I use at my farm are San Ace or Silverstone as they tend to move a decent amount of air. One thing I would mention is to try not to go to cheap on computer fans as some don't move any air at all and you'll just be wasting your money.
You can get these cool fan splitter boards that add in more fans ports without needing all the extra long cables which makes it nice for when you're trying to chain them together. However, you will need a spare 4 pin Molex cable to power on the board for multiple fan configurations.
If you have anymore questions or found some better solutions then the one mentioned here please comment below.
One way to cool your massive Bitcoin mining rig? Submerge it in oil.
Due to the high temperatures created by the hardware used for mining cryptocurrencies, this 36 ASICs (application-specific integrated circuit chips) rig protects its valuable chips by rapidly dispersing the heat.
"Having been into mining for a while, we were dreading the arrival of summer as cooling becomes more of an issue than usual, forcing us to build all the cooling systems in our mines to withstand the hottest week of the year," Alexander Aksenov, one of the brains behind the project, told Digital Trends. "Facing high [capital expenditure] costs for autonomous air-cooled systems, my partner Mirian and I began exploring alternative methods of achieving stable temperatures, taking as a benchmark the cost of a quality automated ventilation system.
"Having reviewed numerous immersion-cooled solutions that could be adapted to our needs," he continued, "we came to the conclusion that the market is oversaturated with high-quality overpriced products that serve a purpose when financially subsidized, but are not viable for mining adaptation due to high costs severely affecting [return-on-investment] periods. That is when we made the decision to create an immersion-cooled solution from the ground up, which will be completely self-sufficient and autonomous from surrounding infrastructure."
The system they built is able to cool up to 72 kilowatts of heat, coming ready with a full fuse box, Ethernet switch, and Zabbix-based monitoring system attached to it. It can be set up in any household or industrial space that meets the power requirements and has running water for keeping the oil appropriately chilled. As Alexander says, the byproduct of this system is hot water, which leaves the plated heat exchanger at a temperature of around 50 degrees -- allowing them to heat the surrounding building and even provide enough hot running water to take showers.
The setup is located in Russia, where the pair of cryptocurrency masterminds have been working on their innovation lab since leaving previous jobs in the financial sector. "Cryptocurrency revealed to be the perfect platform for an exciting new direction with tremendous potential for growth that provides life-changing digital solutions, so we gathered our savings, converted them into crypto, quit our jobs and never looked back," Aksenov told us.
At present, he said that the pair is working on a brand new immersion-cooled concept, although no further details are ready to be shared.
The only thing about this that sucks? That the pair is no longer working in conventional finance. After all, these kind of out-of-the-box thinkers are exactly what the financial system needs. Still, finance's loss is cryptocurrency's (and, presumably, this pair's) gain.
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Cryptocurrency mining is not trendy anymore. Wrong! It still makes a lot of fuss in the blockchain community. As long as the first and the leading cryptocurrency, Bitcoin (BTC), will require mining rigs, cryptocurrency mining will be trending.
Building a mining rig in 2020 is much easier than it was, say, two years ago. The market has significantly expanded with new profitable coins to mine. There are multiple ways to mine crypto in 2020: GPU and CPU mining, cloud mining, ASIC mining, mobile mining, mining via laptop, and so on.
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Mining Rigs Types.
Before starting your mining career, you need to choose a cryptocurrency that will be mined. Different crypto assets require different mining rigs for the mining process to be smooth and profitable. But let's get back to the bASICs. What is a mining rig?
A mining rig is a computer system powerful enough to solve difficult mathematical tasks in order to mine cryptocurrency.
A full-fledged mining rig consists of several essential components: mining hardware, mining software, mining pool. Each mineable cryptocurrency has its hashing algorithm, which is responsible for the hash generation. For example, Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Monero are built with the Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus protocol in mind. However, all three coins use different hashing algorithms: Bitcoin - SHA256, Ethereum - Ethash, Monero - RandomX.
Once you determine which coin you are willing to mine, it is time to choose a mining rig.
The cryptocurrency can be mined with GPU, CPU, and ASIC miners. Some crypto assets require GPU/CPU or ASIC mining only, some of them can be mined with all of the three options.
GPU stands for Graphics Processing Unit or simply graphics card. You've probably heard such words as Nvidia and AMD. Both of them are leaders in the industry of GPUs and often appear in our mining guides. GPU mining requires much electrical power. Although the mining process needs many computational and electrical resources, in general. GPU mining is efficient but quite expensive. However, if you change your mind about cryptocurrency mining, GPU rigs will serve you as a perfect gaming kit a long time after.
Crypto assets to mine with GPU: ETH, RVN, ZEC, DOGE, ETC, etc.
Best GPU miners: AMD Radeon VII, Nvidia GeForce GTX 1060, AMD Radeon RX Vega, etc.
Another way to mine cryptocurrency is CPU.
CPU (Central Processing Unit) is an extremely vital attribute of any computer which is responsible for the main processes within the computer's logic. Back to the good old days of 2010, Bitcoin (BTC) could be seamlessly mined with CPU via a regular PC. The block reward was 50 BTC, and life seemed to be easier.
This is not political, but it is to answer a question my friend asked me. so here it is CPU MINING is PROFITABLE IF USED THE RIGHT WAY AS AN ASSET https://t.co/pLtSJPqeep.
As of July 2020, Bitcoin mining with CPU is much more effective than it was ten years ago but still slower than GPU and ASIC. However, a range of other digital assets can be successfully mined with CPU.
Crypto assets to mine with CPU: XMR , LTC , GRIN.
Best CPU miners: AMD Ryzen Threadripper 1950X, AMD Ryzen 7 1800X, Intel Core i5-7600K.
ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit).
Some members of the crypto community believe that ASIC miners are less secure and go against the main principles of decentralization. Monero is a strong ASIC resistant coin that can be mined solely with GPU and CPU.
At the dawn of cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin could be mined only with CPU. The mining difficulty has been increasing year by year while Bitcoin mining with CPU has been showing a lower efficiency level. ASIC miners burst into the industry in 2013 and rapidly gained momentum.
ASICs are designed to perform one single task in an ultra-fast manner. As it is made to perform one function, you cannot use, say, Bitcoin ASIC (which focused on the SHA256 hashing algorithm) to mine Zcash (as it uses the Equihash algorithm).
Crypto Trading: How-To -- Guide for Beginners.
Well, we've considered different types of miners. The next steps are as follows.
Step 1. DYOR.
Do your own research or DYOR should be a life motto. It is extremely important to research the market in order to find the best for yourself. If we speak about cryptocurrency mining, let us provide a shortlist of what should be taken into consideration:
Choose the coin you'd like to mine. Find out its hashing algorithm and determine the best way to mine it (CPU, GPU, ASIC); Do the research on the chosen mining hardware. It is essential to choose mining hardware that will consume an appropriate amount of electricity while providing efficient mining; To calculate the mining profitability of a particular cryptocurrency, it is recommended to use mining calculators.
Step 2. Choose the Components.
Before starting to build a mining rig, there are several components that should be checked.
The connector, the center, the Motherboard. A motherboard should provide support to over 5 video cards in order to enable profitable cryptocurrency mining. This component will determine which CPU to use, and so on. Choose it wisely.
Cooling system.
Mining is a tough job that makes your PC and processors overheat very quickly. It is vital to keep your mining rig cool. In this case, a high-quality cooling system is an irreplaceable component.
If you decide to join the legion of GPU miners, be sure your graphics cards concur with your budget and other mining requirements.
CPU mining and other non-mining processes require powerful equipment. Before acquiring a processor, research the market in order to determine the one that suits you the most. Pay attention to Intel Core i3, i4, i7, etc.
Step 3. Start to Build.
The building process is quite straightforward - you need to gather all components together.
Put a motherboard into mining's rig frame; Plug the cables into the CPU; Setup GPUs and a cooling system.
To better understand how to collect every piece together, find the Youtube tutorials that provide a comprehensive explanation on a particular mining rig.
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Cryptocurrency Miners Turn to Exotic Cooling Systems as Competition Heats Up.
Joon Ian Wong.
Amid Singapore's humid equatorial heat, a group of researchers and faculty at the island's main technical education institute are sweating over an unconventional cooling solution - for litecoin miners.
The institute, known more for strait-laced vocational courses, has partnered with litecoin startup CloudMining.sg to develop a liquid immersion cooling system for the firm's miners, in conjunction with materials science giant 3M.
Neal Blackburn, who runs business development for the startup, said:
"[Other universities] we approached weren't comfortable enough to take this on as a project. With the Institute of Technical Education, they want commercialised research, we were signing the paperwork in 48 hours."
No wonder the institute jumped at the project. Its goal is to build a "beach cooler" sized module containing an exotic cooling fluid from 3M that quickly dissipates heat. Circuit boards for litecoin mining are submerged directly into the liquid, resulting in energy cost savings of 96%, said Blackburn.
Exotic cooling provides an edge.
Miners in the cryptocurrency world are locked in a zero-sum game to discover new blocks. As competition intensifies, miners must find an increasingly elusive edge to beat their rivals. To do this, they're now turning to expensive and specialised cooling systems that were once the exclusive preserve of cutting-edge research laboratories and military installations.
According to Michael Bedford Taylor, director of the Center for Dark Silicon at the University of California, San Diego, liquid immersion cooling is currently "extremely rare" in general-purpose data centres, but it could become a common sight in Bitcoin mining installations.
"I can't name any current machines that do immersion cooling [...] I think it's a great possibility [for the Bitcoin mining industry]," he said.
Firms supplying liquid immersion cooling technology and services have reported a spike in enquiries from bitcoin miners.
3M, for example, produces a liquid called Novec that is used to cool circuit boards directly. This means the boards are submerged in the liquid, typically in an 'open bath' system, where they lie uncovered, for easy access.
Michael Garceau, who sells Novec to data centres on behalf of 3M, told CoinDesk:
"Enquiries have grown exponentially, and sales have grown as well. We're seeing a transition [of Bitcoin mining] to an industrial scale now."
ASICMiner in Hong Kong uses a famously documented Novec system, while CoinTerra has said that it's considering an immersion-based system too.
Different immersion systems.
The 3M liquid works by changing from liquid to vapour at a very low boiling point, typically 49 degrees Celsius. As the submerged electronics generate heat, the liquid heats up and evaporates. The vapour rises into a condenser, cools down and then returns to the tank as liquid.
The chief competitor to Novec-based systems is liquid cooling using mineral oil.
Green Revolution Cooling (GRC), a firm based in Austin, Texas, sets up oil-based systems and counts the United States Air Force, the Department of Defense and the Tokyo Institute of Technology among its customers. It calls its immersion-cooling technology the 'CarnotJet system' ( see image at top ).
While similar in principle, oil immersion cooling is slightly more complex than Novec-filled systems.
The circuit boards are submerged in an oil-based coolant, as with Novec, but the oil has to be circulated with a pump to remove heat. The oil travels to a heat exchanger, where heat is transferred to water-filled pipes that ultimately connect to a cooling tower, located somewhere outside the building. The cooling tower then dispels the heat into the air.
Moore's Law and miners.
Bedford Taylor says chips used in Bitcoin mining are now so advanced that they are hitting the limits of semiconductor fabrication, as set out by the famous dictum, Moore's Law.
Moore's Law states that the number of transistors on an integrated circuit will double every two years. Transistor counts on a chip are determined by the chip fabrication process. As process technology improves, it shrinks the size of the elements on a chip, allowing more transistors to be arranged on one chip.
The size of transistors on a chip is measured in nanometres. According to the UCSD's Bedford Taylor, chips used in miners are now using the smallest transistors that can be fabricated.
"Bitcoin mining chips are now in the most advanced technology nodes of Moore's Law: 20nm and 20nm. The first chips were in 130nm, a relatively old process."
Bespoke chips and dark silicon.
In a paper studying the progress of chips used in Bitcoin mining, Bedford Taylor concludes that technological advancement in the area has been "amazingly fast" in the face of increasing difficulty. He describes four generations of Bitcoin mining chips, starting at regular CPUs and ending with the ASICs (application-specific integrated circuits) that miners currently use.
The current generation of mining chips represent the first examples of a new era of "bespoke silicon" - custom-made chips produced in relatively small batches for a specific purpose - Bedford Taylor argues in a 2013 paper.
"The latest round of hardware - dedicated ASICs - have been financed, developed and deployed by bitcoin users, which is perhaps an unprecedented event in recent history. One question is whether this model can scale to other application areas and usher in a new era of bespoke silicon," he wrote.
Bedford Taylor was one of the authors of a paper that described a phenomenon known as 'dark silicon'.
The dark silicon problem says that, as transistor counts on chips increase, the portion of the chip that is actually utilised, given the the chip's power constraints, drops exponentially. As a result, a portion of the chip remains without power - the dark silicon - and is not utilised.
The researcher said that some bitcoin miners have been advancing so rapidly that dark silicon is already an issue and performance has been reduced as a result.
When immersion cooling makes sense.
So if liquid immersion is so effective at cooling these chips that are being pushed to the limits of current technology, why aren't all miners using it? It turns out that immersion cooling systems only make sense when miners face certain constraints.
As Brandon Moore of GRC notes, three factors drive adoption of immersion cooling systems: expensive electricity, expensive real estate and the absence of a legacy cooling system.
"If they've got expensive power, are space constrained and don't have a cooling infrastructure in place already, then I can come in. Hook up a cooling tower and we're done," he said.
Garceau of 3M agrees with Moore's assessment, although he notes that the bitcoin miners he has spoken to are increasingly interested in optimising their installations even without physical or monetary constraints.
"If you have real-estate constraints, if you have high cost of energy, then the economics get better. But bitcoin miners are looking for the best economics they can get all round."
Costs and benefits.
Immersion cooling can slash running costs. Allied Control - a Hong Kong-based company that set up ASICMiner's much talked about mining installation in that city, - claims that its Novec-based cooling system saved the miner more than 90% of its electricity consumption. Green Revolution Cooling, meanwhile, claims to cut running costs in half with its oil-based cooling system.
Even with the potential savings, immersion cooling remains expensive. For a conventional data centre, 3M estimates that the cost of using its Novec product can rise to 25% of the cost of the hardware that it's cooling. The firm claims that bitcoin miners, however, operate such high density servers that fluid costs of 2% - 5% of hardware are possible.
Research firm IHS finds that special cooling fluids are about five times more expensive than a traditional chilled-water system.
Is the future containerised?
As immersion cooling gains traction, mining farms may take on even more outlandish forms. Both GRC and Allied Control are offering 'containerised' solutions for miners who might want to take advantage of, say, a plum location near a hydroelectric dam.
Green Revolution Cooling can build its CarnoJet system inside a 40-foot shipping container, which it promises is 'plug and play'. Allied Control, meanwhile, touts its DataTank modules, which offers remote, high-definition security cameras as an option.
GRC's Moore said:
"Not everyone can mine in the Arctic, so if you don't have that luxury, a solution like ours makes sense. You can be efficient anywhere in the world, whether you're in the Amazon or Canada."
Air cooling remains dominant.
Bitcoin mining enterprises may be buying cooling fluids by the litre now, but they remain an oddity to the vast majority of data centres. Almost all existing data centres rely on air-cooling systems, as they remain cheaper to run, less complex to manage and more widely available.
According to research firm IHS, liquid cooling accounts for less than 1% of the data centre cooling market. However, the firm also found that demand for liquid-cooling systems is growing, driven by rising energy costs and the emergence of high-performance data centres. For the likes of 3M and GRC, that's a trend to keep an eye on.
As GRC's Moore says:
"Bitcoin miners are almost like kids with a magnifying glass over an ant mound: they're burning up hardware and pushing it to the limit as fast as they can. When you're cooling your equipment on shelves with box-fans, there's only so much you can do."
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Bitcoin was introduced in 2009 as a digital, decentralized currency. In the Bitcoin network there's no central authority. Instead a public ledger of every transaction is validated and shared using peer-to-peer technology. Recently there was a surprising spike in the value of Bitcoins, making me curious to find out more of the system behind.
Bitcoin transactions are grouped and confirmed by encoding them in a block and adding it to a blockchain that is protected by strong cryptography. The cryptographic calculations aren't provided by a central authority - instead anyone with capable hardware and mining software installed can provide computational labor to help solve the next block.

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When a block is solved the successful miner (or mining pool) earns a reward in Bitcoins. (Currently 25 BTC - worth about 2500€) This is quite an incentive and so Bitcoin mining evolved into a very competitive market. Advanced mining software uses GPU's to compute hashes a hundred times faster then possible on CPUs and there is even dedicated hardware with hashrates in the Giga-range and a better Hashrate/power-consumption ratio. Nonetheless incredible amounts of electricity (
1 GW/h) are wasted on mining Bitcoins which is bASICally spend calculating zillion's of SHA256 hashes. Currently the combined network of miners calculates roughly 80.000.000.000.000 Hashes per second. Crazy stuff.
Miniminer.
If you are trying to understand how Bitcoin mining software works but can't find a reference implementation that is minimal and easy to understand (like me, 2 days ago) here's my contribution:
Miniminer is a simple CPU based Bitcoin Miner in C#. Only about 300 lines of code but fully functional, open source and uploaded on Github.
It uses the bASIC GETWORK protocol to connect to pools and mines at.
400Kh/s a second. That's not fast enough for serious mining but enough to find a valid share eventually, submit it to the pool server and be happy about the fact that you understand every single line of code that made it happen!
The jobs that clients get from mining pools to solve are a lot easier than (and independent of) the current Bitcoin difficulty. With the GETWORK protocol you seem to always get a target of difficulty 1. Difficulty 1 means a valid share requires 32 zero-bits which is easy and fast to test for. So I chose to hardcode that difficulty. A higher Bitcoin difficulty just means it takes more shares (on average) until a new Bitcoin Header is found, not that the shares are more difficult to solve.
Whenever a new header is found (approximately every 10 minutes) the current job your miner is trying to solve is obsolete. With the GETWORK protocol the only way to detect that is to ask for new work and see if the reply has changed. So both an interval of 10s or 100s would technically work. But 10s instead of 20s would double the bandwith consumption for a minimal efficiency gain. And 100s instead of 20s would mean that you'd waste 10% of your cycles solving stale problems. I just felt like 20s is a good tradeoff.
I hope that answers both of your questions!
Glad I could help!
My research was powered by google mostly. There's a lot of good info on the bitcoin wiki (https://en.bitcoin.it), the official page or burried in threads on https://bitcointalk.org and I also looked into the sourcecode of cgminer and Diablo Miner.
Have you managed to get valid share? My one was keep failing.
Sending Share to Pool... Server declined the Share!
Yeah I got a couple of valid shares myself and meanwhile there are 24 when I log into BTC Guild with the default user so it has worked for at least a couple of other's, too.
But the pool server has to accept the GETWORK protocol and afaik that was (at least temporarily) disabled due to some denial of service attacks.
Hi i tried your miner but i get always the same.
Error: "Die zugrunde liegende Verbindung wurde geschlossen: Die Verbindung wurde unerwartet getrennt.."
Translation: " The underlying connection was closed: The connection was closed unexpectedly"
So do you know how to fix this Error?
Just a hint before you hit your own facepalm: you're connecting to a stratum server (which expects "stratum" protocol, not "getwork"... but you could use a local stratum proxy program to bridge that gap.)
Great project, thank you very much for it.
Just a quick question to be sure: 1) The pool gives you a range of bytes to elaborate 2) You split those bytes in batches 3) for each batches you calculate the double SHA-256 4) if one of those contains 4 zeros then it is a "good result" 5) you share those results with the pool.
but what exactly is the "good result"? it is a bitcoin? a part of it? I don't quite get that part.
Bitcoin development.
Bitcoin is free software and any developer can contribute to the project. Everything you need is in the GitHub repository. Please make sure to read and follow the development process described in the README, as well as to provide good quality code and respect all guidelines.
Development discussion takes place on GitHub and the bitcoin-dev mailing list. Less formal development discussion happens on irc.freenode.net #bitcoin-core-dev (web interface, logs).
To report an issue, please see the bug reporting page.
Code Review.
Bitcoin Core is security software that helps protect assets worth billions of dollars, so every code change needs to be reviewed by experienced developers.
It can take a long time for other developers to review your pull requests. Remember that all reviewers are taking time away from their own projects to review your pull requests, so be patient and respectful of their time.
Please also consider helping to review other people’s pull requests. You don’t need to be an expert in Bitcoin, the Bitcoin Core codebase, or C++ (although all these things help). There are almost always open pull requests that any programmer can review.
Starter Projects.
Do you want to begin coding for Bitcoin Core but don’t have a specific improvement in mind? Here are a few ideas:
Fix existing issues: the issue tracker is the best place to find a useful way to contribute to Bitcoin Core. Before starting to write any patches for issues you find, you may want to comment on the issue to make sure nobody else is already working on it.
Write tests: Bitcoin Core is covered by many tests, but patches that improve test coverage are always welcome and are a great way to build familiarity with the codebase. See the documentation about automated testing.
If you are interested in learning more about the technical details of Bitcoin and how to use existing tools and APIs, it is recommended you start by exploring the developer documentation.
Developer communities.
The following chatrooms and websites host discussions about Bitcoin development. Please be sure to read their rules of conduct before posting.
Bitcoin Core contributors.
(Ordered by number of commits)
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Want to contribute to a different project?
Armory - A wallet with enhanced security features, written in C++. BFGMiner - A modular miner, written in C. Bitcoin Wallet - A SPV wallet for Android, written in Java. bitcoinj - A library for SPV wallets, written in Java. btcd - A full node, written in Go. BTCPay Server - A cross platform, self-hosted server compatible with Bitpay API, written in C#. btcwallet - A hierarchical deterministic wallet daemon, written in Go. ckpool - A fast mining pool server application, written in C. Electrum - A fast server-trusting wallet, written in Python. Eloipool - A fast mining pool server application, written in Python. Haskoin - An implementation of the Bitcoin protocol, written in Haskell. Libbitcoin - A cross-platform development toolkit, written in C++. Libbitcoin Server - A full node and query server, built on libbitcoin. Libbitcoin Explorer - A command line tool, built on libbitcoin. Libblkmaker - A client library for the getblocktemplate mining protocol, written in C. NBitcoin - A cross-platform library, written in C#. picocoin - A tiny library with lightweight client and utilities, written in C. python-bitcoinlib - A library for structures and protocols, written in Python. Python Blkmaker - A client library for the getblocktemplate mining protocol, written in Python. Show more.
Can anyone learn Bitcoin's code? Let's analyze.
The Takeaway:
Bitcoin came into existence on 3rd January 2009, when pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto mined the genesis block. Since then, bitcoin has come a long way. In this article, we attempt to explain how bitcoin works and how anyone can access the bitcoin source code.
An unknown person or a group of people known by the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto published a white paper titled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System." This decentralized and open-source program is the financial bitcoin revolution that today is known as bitcoin. In the article, we analyze how someone can access bitcoin's code.
The first time the term "cryptocurrency" was used by the cypherpunk Wei Dai on the cypherpunks mailing list, where a suggested the idea of a new form of money that uses cryptography to control its creation and transaction, instead of a central authority. That was the only definition of what is crypto till then. Bitcoin was the first implementation of that proposed concept.
Any developer can review the bitcoin code.
Bitcoin software is open-source software, and any developer around the world can review the code or make their own modified version of the Bitcoin software. Satoshi Nakamoto quit the bitcoin developers team in late 2010, without ever revealing his true identity. Since then, the community has grown exponentially, and many developers from around the world are working on bitcoin.
Who controls the Bitcoin Network?
Bitcoin is truly decentralized, and no one owns the Bitcoin network. Bitcoin users around the world control the bitcoin, and any changes are made with the consensus of all the users. The network can only work correctly with the consensus of all users. Therefore, all users and developers have a strong incentive to protect this consensus, but anyone can access the bitcoins code platform .
How to access bitcoin source code?
The Bitcoin source code can be hosted on anything ranging from a raspberry pi to AWS. You can also read the bitcoin source code on Github without any hassle. From a user's perspective, bitcoin works like any other mobile app or a computer program that provides a personal bitcoin wallet and allows users to send and receive bitcoins among them. But behind the scenes, the technology that allows bitcoin to be decentralized is known as the blockchain.
Note: Bitcoin's reference implementation is mostly written in C++, but there are other clients written in different languages, including Python and Java.
How to become a bitcoin developer?
If you want to become a bitcoin developer, the first thing that you need to do is read the 9 page Bitcoin whitepaper published by Satoshi Nakamoto. If you want to become a bitcoin developer, then it is important to learn how blockchain works. The other main aspect of the bitcoin network is the process of mining. Mining is a process of producing new coins and adding them to the bitcoin network. Mining works on the proof-of-work principle.
Note: The original Bitcoin Core was coded by Satoshi Nakamoto using C++.
Bitcoin is an open-source and decentralized, which means that anyone can access the entire source code at any time, and anyone can trade it. All bitcoin transactions and issued coins into existence can be transparently consulted in real-time by anyone. Bitcoin source can be reviewed on Github by anyone and learn them to develop the network with the consent of all the users.
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